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成交量回升高库存仍存 楼市后市或将加速跑量

Editorials

Covid-19: breaking the chain of household transmission

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: 中共中央 国务院 关于完善促进消费体制机制进一步激发居民消费潜力的若干意见(4) (Published 14 August 2020) Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3181

Read our latest coverage of the coronavirus outbreak

  1. Shamil Haroon, clinical lecturer in primary care1,
  2. Joht Singh Chandan, academic clinical fellow in public health12,
  3. John Middleton, president3,
  4. Kar Keung Cheng, professor of public health and primary care1
  1. 1Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  3. 3Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER)
  1. Correspondence to: S Haroon s.haroon{at}bham.ac.uk

广州:一手房交易涉税业务网上办

The UK is one of the countries most severely affected by covid-19. Recent outbreaks in English towns such as Oldham, probably involving transmission within large multigenerational households, show the importance of getting the right public health measures in place now to prevent more widespread surges in infections.1

Current test and trace policies have mainly focused on preventing spread in care homes, hospitals, and in the community.2 However, contact within households is thought to be responsible for roughly 70% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when widespread community control measures are in place.3 In Wuhan, the reproduction number (R) dropped from 3.54 to 1.18 after lockdown and cordon sanitaire. But the epidemic was only brought under complete control when Fangcang (field) hospitals were introduced to isolate cases outside the home, with R dropping to 0.51 after two weeks.4

Current UK guidance advises household contacts to isolate within the same home as the index case for 14 days.5 They make up the majority of contacts for infected individuals and are likely to remain exposed to the infected household member during this period of isolation.6 Despite guidance advising household members to socially distance, contacts are likely to interact repeatedly—during mealtimes, for example—and to share facilities such as bathrooms.

We know that transmission is more likely to occur indoors than outdoors.7 The cumulative risk to household contacts from an infected person is likely to be substantial during peak viral shedding. In one study in New York State, 38% of household contacts tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, and similar secondary infection rates have been reported in China.89 Transmission may be even higher among household contacts of essential workers, who are at greater risk of being infected than the general population.10

Household members who are older, have underlying medical conditions, or share a bed or vehicle with the index case are the most susceptible.91112 Children seem to be at lower risk of being infected.13 However, their stool samples and nasopharyngeal swabs can remain positive for SARS-CoV-2 for more than two weeks after symptom resolution,14 although their role in transmission remains to be established.

Governments should consider new public health measures to prevent household transmission as we prepare for a potential second wave. Household quarantine is likely to remain an important pandemic control measure, and government support for people quarantined at home is conspicuously absent in the UK: this position has been challenged by independent experts.15

Effective isolation

Effective isolation of index cases from household members could reduce secondary infections.12 Wearing masks within quarantined households may help, particularly if used by the index case as soon as infection is suspected.16 The World Health Organization recommends that infected people and unavoidable close contacts, particularly those in vulnerable groups, should wear medical masks, but Public Health England does not currently recommend this. Other measures that should be considered (and evaluated) include clear advice on enhanced personal hygiene; cleaning and disinfecting shared toilets and other common spaces, door handles, and touch points; and staggering mealtimes.

People who are unable to self-isolate safely at home could be accommodated in special isolation facilities such as hotels and hostels, an approach adopted by some other countries, including Italy, Finland, and Lithuania.17 In China, field hospitals were created to manage and strictly isolate patients with mild-to-moderate covid-19.18 Nightingale hospitals in the UK could be similarly repurposed to support isolation of infected people with mild-to-moderate disease. As medical and nursing care needs are mostly modest, the cost would be relatively low. However, such a system depends on access to rapid testing for anyone with symptoms or possible exposure so that infection can be confirmed and isolation started before transmission occurs. It would also require public trust that isolation in these facilities would be voluntary, safe, and supportive.

Plans to open 20,000 specialist football schools in 2017, aimed at training young players and cultivating talent, are part of the government's latest plan to advance China's ability to compete on the global pitch.
The host list of 2014 Spring Festival Gala, including Zhu Jun, Dong Qing, Bi Fujian, Li Sisi and Zhang Guoli, are released on Wednesday. Chinese film actor and director Zhang Guoli will host the annual gala of China Central Television (CCTV) for the first time.
2014年在职高管100强课程排行榜冠军是由法国巴黎高等商学院(HEC Paris)、伦敦政治经济学院(LSE)和纽约大学斯特恩商学院(Stern School of Business at New York University)三家合办的Trium课程。排行榜前5位继续由洲际EMBA课程把持。
Mark Rutte, the Dutch prime minister whose People’s Party for Freedom and Democracy (VVD) is slightly ahead of the PVV, has seen his poll numbers rise in recent days because of his hardline stance with Ankara. On Tuesday he called Mr Erdogan’s comments “a disgusting distortion of history”, adding: “We will not lower ourselves to this level. It is totally unacceptable.”
Li Jianmin, from the local Public Security Bureau, told Xinhua news agency, quoted by the South China Morning Post: 'The entire processing facility had a fishy and foul smell. You just couldn't stand it after one or two minutes.'
榜单的前20名中,除了排名第四的复旦大学和第六名的北京大学这两所综合类高校之外,其余席位多被财经类和理工类高校占据。
10.邮差

《橘色》,导演:肖恩·贝克(Sean Baker)。
"Has anybody ever told you that you're a very pretty girl?" With these words to his co-star Elizabeth Taylor on the set of the 1963 movie Cleopatra, Richard Bu
“我们需要做市长希望大家做的事——建造更多住房,”纽约房地产委员会主席史蒂芬·斯皮诺拉(Steven Spinola)说,但是,“如果数据上不可行,如果收回来的租金低于建筑的维护成本,那你就不会这么做了。”
1)谢谢:只是一般的礼貌?没错。那你告诉我,上一次你忘了说(或者拒绝说)谢谢是在什么时候?无论是在公开场合还是在私底下,说一句真诚的“谢谢”都会为你树立好口碑。也别忘了妈妈给你的忠告,“说请”。人们都喜欢比人请自己去做事而不是接受别人的命令去干活。
THE EFFECT OF RAPID CHANGE

Footnotes

  • 中国剩女多的城市房价高:靠买房消除不婚恐慌
  • 单词pandemic 联想记忆:

根据这份由互联网薪酬调查及报告提供商中国薪酬网发布的调查显示,清华大学2017届毕业生平均月薪达9065元。
THE AMERICANS (FX, Jan. 28) Season 3 of this terrific blend of Cold War spy thriller and family drama begins with Washington’s K.G.B. contingent feeling the weight of the Soviet war in Afghanistan. Frank Langella joins the cast as the new handler for the show’s husband-and-wife agents, replacing Margo Martindale’s Claudia. (Making its premiere eight days later: NBC’s “Allegiance,” about Russian spies embedded in the United States. Huh.)
At the forum, tech entrepreneurs also shared their views on virtual reality, which they said will be the most important computing platform over the next five to 10 years.
有专门的机器将氦气打入制作泡沫的溶液中。
Did you write The Lego Batman Movie off as kids-only? Biggest mistake ever. This movie is a witty feat of hilarity, full of dry humor and moments of comedy gold. Basically, if you like Will Arnett in Arrested Development, you will like this.
n. 罪犯

不动产登记与房地产市场走向关系几何

References

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